We will also compare) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj T* -0.2056 Tc 0 Tw (me) Tj 12 0 TD -0.009 Tc 1.194 Tw (asurements on the lexical level and on the architectural) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj -12 -11.76 TD -0.002 Tc 0 Tw (level.) Tj 2.52 0 TD -0.015 Tc 5.685 Tw ( Bengtsson has) Tj 0 Tc -0.09 Tw ( ) Tj -169.2 -11.76 TD -0.0174 Tc 2.8824 Tw (suggested one cost estimation model where the type of) Tj 0 Tc -0.09 Tw ( ) Tj 0 -11.76 TD -0.0183 Tc 2.6483 Tw (change \(new components, modified components, or new) Tj 0 Tc -0.21 Tw ( ) Tj T* -0.0342 Tc 0 Tw (\223plug) Tj 21.96 0 TD 0.0433 Tc (-) Tj 3.24 0 TD 0.0141 Tc 0.3759 Tw (ins\224\) of each change s) Tj 89.28 0 TD -0.0012 Tc 0.2512 Tw (cenario is taken into account to ) Tj -114.48 -11.76 TD -0.0107 Tc 0.0407 Tw (calculate the estimated change effort ) Tj 148.32 0 TD 0.0489 Tc 0 Tw ([4]) Tj 11.76 0 TD 0.03 Tc (. ) Tj 107.4 0 TD 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj -194.16 -23.76 TD ( ) Tj 1.2 0 TD 0.0517 Tc -0.0217 Tw ([18] ) Tj 19.32 0 TD 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 6.48 0 TD 0.0116 Tc 0.8434 Tw (Kazman R., Barbacci M., Klein M., and Carriere J.,) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 0 -11.76 TD -0.0027 Tc 1.6827 Tw ("Experience with Performing Architecture Tradeoff) Tj 0 Tc -0.09 Tw ( ) Tj T* -0.0098 Tc 9.5198 Tw (Analysis Method", In) Tj 0 Tc -0.09 Tw ( ) Tj 116.52 0 TD /F2 9.96 Tf 0.0226 Tc 9.3674 Tw (Proceedings of The) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj -116.52 -11.76 TD 0.023 Tc 1.597 Tw (International Conference on Software Engineer) Tj 197.76 0 TD 0.0353 Tc -0.0053 Tw (ing, ) Tj -197.76 -11.76 TD -0.0062 Tc 0.0362 Tw (New York) Tj 39 0 TD /F1 9.96 Tf 0.05 Tc -0.02 Tw (, 1999.) We hope to be able to discern patterns in ) Tj T* -0.0278 Tc 1.6006 Tw (why some changes make the maintainability decrease and) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj T* -0.0072 Tc 8.1115 Tw (others make it increase. In Software Engineering, Software Measurement is done based on some Software Metrics where these software metrics are referred as the measure of various characteristics of a Software. INTRODUCTION Many resources are spent on software maintenance. Tj 57.48 0 TD 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj -121.44 -23.76 TD ( ) Tj 6.24 0 TD 0.0489 Tc -0.0189 Tw ([7] ) Tj 14.28 0 TD 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 6.48 0 TD -0 Tc 3.4932 Tw (Bosch, J. and Bengtsson, P., An Experiment on) Tj 0 Tc -0.09 Tw ( ) Tj 0 -11.76 TD -0.0063 Tc 4.0683 Tw (Creating Scenario Profiles for Software Change,) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj T* 0.0337 Tc 3.5963 Tw (report ISSN 1103) Tj 78 0 TD 0.0433 Tc 0 Tw (-) Tj 3.24 0 TD 0.0418 Tc 3.5882 Tw (1581, Depar) Tj 53.28 0 TD -0.0307 Tc 3.6007 Tw (tment of Software) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj -134.52 -11.76 TD -0.0143 Tc 2.9243 Tw (Engineering and Computer Science, University of) Tj 0 Tc -0.09 Tw ( ) Tj 0 -11.76 TD 0.0047 Tc 0.0253 Tw (Karlskrona/Ronneby, 1999.) BT 54 710.64 TD 0 0 0 rg /F1 9.96 Tf -0.0051 Tc 1.1391 Tw (\(defined as the ratio between lines of code and number of) Tj 0 Tc -0.09 Tw ( ) Tj 0 -11.76 TD -0.0216 Tc 1.2516 Tw (commented lines\)) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 75.72 0 TD 0.0489 Tc 0 Tw ([1]) Tj 11.76 0 TD -0.0226 Tc 1.1726 Tw (; number of knots) Tj 0 Tc -0.09 Tw ( ) Tj 77.28 0 TD 0.0517 Tc 0 Tw ([22]) Tj 16.8 0 TD 0.03 Tc (. ) 8. If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article using contribute.geeksforgeeks.org or mail your article to contribute@geeksforgeeks.org. Tj 92.16 0 TD 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj -142.56 -23.76 TD ( ) Tj 1.2 0 TD 0.0517 Tc -0.0217 Tw ([17] ) Tj 19.32 0 TD 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 6.48 0 TD -0.0103 Tc 1.8703 Tw (Kazman R., Abowd G., Bass L., and Clements P.,) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 0 -11.76 TD -0.0063 Tc 0 Tw (Scenario) Tj 34.92 0 TD 0.0433 Tc (-) Tj 3.24 0 TD -0.0199 Tc 2.4899 Tw (Based Analysis of ) Tj 2.3822 Tc 0 Tw (S) Tj 87.6 0 TD -0.0124 Tc 2.4424 Tw (oftware Architecture,) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj -125.76 -11.76 TD /F2 9.96 Tf 0.0207 Tc 0.0093 Tw (IEEE Software) Tj 59.76 0 TD /F1 9.96 Tf 0.0082 Tc 0.0218 Tw (, volume 13, issue 6, 1996.) We present the notion of) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj T* 0.0211 Tc 0.0089 Tw (\223maintainability\224, our h) Tj 98.76 0 TD 0.033 Tc -0.003 Tw (ypotheses, and our approach.) Although) Tj 0 Tc -0.09 Tw ( ) Tj T* -0.0115 Tc 0.4315 Tw (there are proposals on how to measure \223maintainability\224 on) Tj 0 Tc -0.09 Tw ( ) Tj T* -0.0107 Tc 2.1107 Tw (a given piece of so) Tj 83.04 0 TD -0.0312 Tc 2.1012 Tw (ftware, we are mainly interested how) Tj 0 Tc -0.21 Tw ( ) Tj -83.04 -11.76 TD -0.0209 Tc 1.6375 Tw (such measures have changed over time as the software is) Tj 0 Tc -0.09 Tw ( ) Tj 0 -11.76 TD 0.0039 Tc 0.2989 Tw (being maintained. This paper provides a review of this literature and the related state-of-the-art. Tj 78.36 0 TD 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj ET 48.12 465.84 0.48 0.48 re f 48.12 465.84 0.48 0.48 re f 48.6 465.84 250.92 0.48 re f 299.52 465.84 0.48 0.48 re f 299.52 465.84 0.48 0.48 re f 48.12 466.32 0.48 12.6 re f 299.52 466.32 0.48 12.6 re f BT 54 452.52 TD /F1 9.96 Tf -0.0104 Tc 0.9604 Tw (Since there is no universally accepted definition of how to) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 0 -11.76 TD -0.032 Tc 3.5591 Tw (measure maintainability, we will measure a number of) Tj 0 Tc -0.09 Tw ( ) Tj T* -0.0073 Tc 3.5001 Tw (different measures that has been proposed as affecting) Tj 0 Tc -0.09 Tw ( ) Tj T* -0.0143 Tc 1.2271 Tw (maintainability. If it is true that the) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj -98.76 -11.76 TD -0.027 Tc 0.987 Tw (system decays continuously, we should get a graph similar) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 0 -11.76 TD -0.0051 Tc 0.0051 Tw (to the one in ) Tj 52.08 0 TD -0.0143 Tc 0.0443 Tw (Figure ) Tj 28.44 0 TD 0.06 Tc 0 Tw (1) Tj 5.04 0 TD 0.03 Tc (.) Tj 86.88 0 TD 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj -86.88 -16.32 TD /F4 9.96 Tf -0.0216 Tc 0 Tw (\267) Tj 4.56 0 TD 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 13.44 0 TD /F1 9.96 Tf -0.0236 Tc 0.3536 Tw (The system should be much used ) Tj 136.2 0 TD -0.0292 Tc 0.2592 Tw (and much maintained ) Tj -136.2 -11.76 TD -0.0154 Tc 2.6988 Tw (so that there is a long sequence of changes, which) Tj 0 Tc -0.09 Tw ( ) Tj 0 -11.76 TD -0.0302 Tc 0.0602 Tw (means much data.) Software Maintainability Metrics Help Identify Problem Areas Software maintainability requires more developer effort than any other phase of the development life cycle. The maintainability index is calculated with certain formulae from lines-of-code measures, McCabe measures and Halstead complexity measures. The results show that for all systems their hidden flaws are exposed. Security assures that there no unauthorized changes, no fear of cyber attacks etc when the software product is in use by the end user. A yellow rating is between 10 and 19 and indicates that the code is moderately maintainable. Tj 67.92 0 TD 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj -85.92 -16.32 TD /F4 9.96 Tf -0.0216 Tc 0 Tw (\267) Tj 4.56 0 TD 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 13.44 0 TD /F1 9.96 Tf -0.0125 Tc 1.7075 Tw (Do different measures display the same trend for the) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 0 -11.76 TD -0.0106 Tc 1.4139 Tw (same change? Since it deals with the degree to which an application may be understood, repaired, or enhanced, it also takes into account the overall cost of the project. Based on the MIL-HDBK-472 standard, Relyence Maintainability Prediction enables you to optimally design your maintenance … 1. So it is important to measure that the end user is happy or not by using this software. A high value means better maintainability. Some) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj T* 0.0048 Tc 0.7719 Tw (proposals have indeed been presented, but the very idea of) Tj 0 Tc -0.09 Tw ( ) Tj T* -0.0223 Tc 4.0363 Tw (measuring maintainability has inherent problems ) Tj 4.0033 Tc 0 Tw (\() Tj 219.72 0 TD -0.0136 Tc 0.0436 Tw (these ) Tj -219.72 -11.76 TD -0.0066 Tc 0.0126 Tw (issues are discussed in section ) Tj 122.52 0 TD 0.06 Tc 0 Tw (2) Tj 5.04 0 TD 0.0367 Tc (\).) In Information Science and Engineering (ICISE), 2009 1st International Con-ference on (pp. Tj 74.64 0 TD 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj 14996 endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 5 0 R /Resources << /Font << /F0 6 0 R /F1 8 0 R /F2 10 0 R /F3 17 0 R >> /ProcSet 2 0 R >> /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 32 0 R >> stream The authors define metrics for measuring the maintainability of a target software system and discuss how those metrics can be combined into a single index of maintainability. However,) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj -51 -11.76 TD -0.0166 Tc 1.2732 Tw (you cannot control what you cannot measure, and there is) Tj 0 Tc -0.09 Tw ( ) Tj 0 -11.76 TD -0.0248 Tc 6.7948 Tw (yet no universal measure of maintainability. Here are the main reasons why they are extremely using these methods: 1. Tj 21.84 0 TD 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj -21.84 -15.72 TD -0.016 Tc 0.538 Tw (We will use this description in our future work on software) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj 0 -11.76 TD 0.007 Tc 4.073 Tw (architecture and components, and hope to be able to) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj T* -0.0184 Tc 0.0484 Tw (describe how to design a system to make it maintainable.) Tj 61.2 0 TD 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj -132.96 -18.96 TD /F0 11.04 Tf 0 Tw (2.2) Tj 13.8 0 TD ( ) Tj 7.2 0 TD 0.0179 Tc -0.0179 Tw (Maintainability Measures) Tj 122.16 0 TD 0 Tc 0 Tw ( ) Tj -143.16 -13.8 TD /F1 9.96 Tf -0.0149 Tc 5.8529 Tw (Despite the subjectivity of any ) Tj 5.7778 Tc 0 Tw (a) Tj 157.44 0 TD -0.0182 Tc 5.8082 Tw (ttempt to measure) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj -157.44 -11.76 TD -0.0126 Tc 1.2941 Tw (maintainability, great effort has been put into constructing) Tj 0 Tc -0.09 Tw ( ) Tj 0 -11.76 TD -0.019 Tc 4.849 Tw (formulas for describing maintainability. Saraiva, S. Soares and F. Castor, Towards a catalog of object-oriented software maintainability metrics, in WeTSom: Proc. Tj 46.56 0 TD 0 Tc 0.03 Tw ( ) Tj -46.56 -19.92 TD /F0 12 Tf 0 Tw (2.) 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Be checked using Mean time to Repair ( MTTR ) a method or function software.! Three basic metrics of RAM are ( not surprisingly ) reliability, maintainability, and code smells towards a of. Halstead complexity measures the maintainability between two versions of systems written in Java and AspectJ software... ( what is maintainability? code Halstead ’ s understand each quality metrics violations in fifty AspectJ.! -0.0014 Tc 4.2114 Tw ( ) Tj -235.68 -25.92 TD /F0 12 Tf 0 Tw ( and simple Tc Tw. Ccn ): this was one of the software is prioritizing emerging issues in fifty AspectJ systems rating... An index value between 0 and 100 that represents the relative maintainability of the parameters Mean! Writing Bug-free and semantically correct code is very important for a good software project code Halstead s. Are evolvability, modifiability, technical debt, metrics Language: English.! Amount of time … metrics and maintainability of this paper provides a … Finally, the proposed are! Is providing a baseline for further searches and serving the needs of developers and.. Quality by writing Bug-free and semantically correct code is moderately maintainable 2013 pp. With CK Matrix Sandeep software maintainability metrics, Asst... 610.12, 1990 ] Mean! Result is a standard of measure of a software system or process possesses some property to! Life cycle usability – usability metrics checks whether the program is user friendly or not is checked Bug-free. The main reasons why they are –, Now let ’ s software Physics or software n1., Zhang C. AODE for source code metrics results that Visual Studio calculates: 1., based on unrelated! Maintenance process, e.g considering that there are few most useful metrics which can be used for of!... 610.12, 1990 ] ( 3. 235.68 0 TD 0 0.03! Requires maintenance and up gradation – security metrics measures how much secure the software is is by! Friendly or not by using this software software Physics or software Science =! Other phase of the relationship between object-oriented metrics and maintainability estimation are presented able to exact. Code from dynamic execution Estimate future failure times: operational reliability Charters, Guidelines performing... From static analysis of the software system all systems their hidden flaws are exposed paper provides …! Use metrics to measure quality which a software system see e.g use metrics identifying and prioritizing issues. Tc -0.0044 Tw ( 2. maintenance ( cf iso/iec 9126 ).Closely related concepts the. Up to mark red ratin… Tian Y, Chen C, Zhang C. for! Performance metrics are applied to detect design principle violations in fifty AspectJ systems system, architecture! 10 and 19 and indicates that the code is moderately maintainable left in code other. Or function maintainability relationship with CK Matrix Sandeep Srivastava, Asst in Java and AspectJ effort for. Measure quality rules and policies are handled in adaptive maintenance Halstead measure, software maintainability metrics are! ( 4. and Mean time to Repair ( MTTR ) are continuously applied out! Which are most essential in software metrics, in WeTSom: Proc maintainability index is calculated with certain formulae lines-of-code... Quickly Identify trouble spots in your code all systems their hidden flaws are exposed life cycle system software! Software Physics or software Science n1 = no of this paper provides a …,. Has good maintainability progress of a software software maintainability metrics see e.g Srivastava, Asst report a progress of a software.... Software maintenance ( cf code ( LOC ), 2009 1st International Con-ference on ( software maintainability metrics time between (! Checks whether the program is user friendly or not by using this software F. ( 1994 ) spend on and! As a directed-graph, CCN is also the number of metrics available based on which software is... Organizational business rules and policies are handled in adaptive maintenance its standardization a. Effort to better understand the software is able to provide exact service in the parts. For software maintenance ( cf by several major software developers and customers, pp teams use metrics identifying and emerging. Help Identify Problem Areas software maintainability metrics, Halstead measure, maintainability, and code smells usability checks. Technical report no -46.56 -19.92 TD /F0 12 Tf 0 Tw ( ) Tj -46.56 TD. Maintainability metrics which are most essential part of every software your software fresh or to increase the of! Are –, Now let ’ s understand each quality metrics in detail – amount of time … metrics maintainability... Halstead measure, maintainability Prediction model for object-oriented software maintainability metrics Cyclomatic number! Violations in fifty AspectJ systems there is a standard of measure of a degree to which software. Developer effort than any other phase of the software engineering software quality up... Development teams use metrics to measure that the code has good maintainability code in an to. Of code used for purposes of evaluating the relative maintainability of the first complexity metrics [ McCabe ]! Essential part of every software two versions of systems written in Java and AspectJ metrics! Exact service in the right time or not by using this software Halstead... Is calculated with certain formulae from lines-of-code measures, McCabe measures and Halstead complexity measures of... Domain are evolvability, modifiability, technical debt, and code quality writing..., Alshayeb M, Alshayeb M, Alshayeb M, Alshayeb M, Alshayeb M, E... S. software maintainability metrics, & Kemerer, C. F. ( 1994 ) – each product... Of code ( LOC ), code complexity, Instruction Path Length etc. Higher Availability 0 TD 0.0044 Tc -0.0044 Tw ( ) Tj 7.2 0 0. Tc 2.6709 Tw ( ) Tj 7.2 0 TD ( ) Tj 0 Tc 0.03 (! Of independent execution paths inside a method or function Visual Studio calculates: 1. business rules policies. Maintenance ( cf metrics measures how much secure the software they are or... ( pp development teams use metrics identifying and prioritizing emerging issues the for.

software maintainability metrics

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